INFECTION (in the baby)
In utero (prenatal-onset)
Recurrent GBS infection
INVASIVE PROCEDURES & INDUCTION
PLACENTAL TRIAGE & PATHOLOGY
PRETERM BIRTH & GBS
SEROTYPES & SUSCEPTIBILITY
SEX & GBS
SIGNS & SYMPTOMS
STILLBIRTH (various causes)
TESTING & TREATMENT including
vaginal pH testing
URINE & GBS
VACCINE FOR GBS
In the News
Abstracts & Articles
VAGINITIS & GBS
Alternatives to antibiotics—a pipeline portfolio review
Czaplewski L, Bax R, Clokie M, et al. The Lancet Infectious Diseases. Volume 16, No. 2, p239–251, February 2016.
Influence of a combination of probiotics on bacterial infections in very low birthweight newborns. (abstract)
Kanic Z., Micetic Turk D., Burja S., et al. Wien Klin Wochenschr. 2015 Dec; 127 Suppl 5: S210-5.
Quasi Experiment of Prenatal Probiotics Against Group B Streptococcus Colonization
Hanson L, Vandevusse L, Duster M, Warrack S, Safdar N. Feasibility of oral prenatal probiotics against maternal group B Streptococcus vaginal and rectal colonization. J Obstet Gynecol Neonatal Nurs. 2014 May-Jun;43(3):294-304. doi: 10.1111/1552-6909.12308. Epub 2014 Apr 22.
The Impact of Prenatal Probiotics on Group B Streptococcus Colonization
Simone R. Warrack, Lisa Hanson, Leona VandeVusse, June 2013 Volume 41, Issue 6, Supplement, Page S142 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ajic.2013.03.282
Group B streptococcus intrapartum prophylaxis guidelines adherence: a perinatal risk management issue.
Hanson L, Vandevusse L. J Perinat Neonatal Nurs. 2010 Apr-Jun;24(2):100-3. doi: 10.1097/JPN.0b013e3181da2fc6.
Feasibility of oral prenatal probiotics against maternal group B streptococcus vaginal and rectal colonization
Hanson L., Vandevusse L., Duster M., Warrack S., Safdar N. (2014) JOGNN - Journal of Obstetric, Gynecologic, and Neonatal Nursing, 43 (3) , pp. 294-304.
Probiotics for Treatment and Prevention of Urogenital Infections in Women: A Systematic Review.
Hanson L, VandeVusse L, Jermé M, Abad CL, Safdar N. J Midwifery Womens Health. 2016 May;61(3):339-55. doi: 10.1111/jmwh.12472.
The Impact of Prenatal Probiotics on Group B Streptococcus Colonization
June 2013 Volume 41, Issue 6, Supplement, Page S142 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ajic.2013.03.282
Vitamin D mediates the relationship between placental cathelicidin and group B streptococcus colonization during pregnancy.
Akoh CC, Pressman EK, Whisner CM, Thomas C. et al. J Reprod Immunol. 2017 Jun;121:42-48. doi: 10.1016/j.jri.2017.06.001. Epub 2017 Jun 6.
Low Vitamin D is Associated With Infections and Proinflammatory Cytokines During Pregnancy.
Akoh CC, Pressman EK, Cooper E, Queenan RA et al. Reprod Sci. 2018 Mar;25(3):414-423. doi: 10.1177/1933719117715124. Epub 2017 Jun 15.
Third Trimester Intramuscular Penicillin
Efficacy of intramuscular penicillin in the eradication of group B streptococcal colonization at delivery. (abstract)
Pinette MG, Thayer K, Wax JR, Blackstone J, Cartin A. J Matern Fetal Neonatal Med. 2005 May; 17(5):333-5.
Late third-trimester treatment of rectovaginal group B streptococci with benzathine penicillin G. (abstract)
Bland ML, Vermillion ST, Soper DE. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2000 Aug;183(2):372-6.
Persistence of penicillin G benzathine in pregnant group B streptococcus carriers. (abstract)
Weeks JW, Myers SR, Lasher L, Goldsmith J, Watkins C, Gall SA. Obstet Gynecol. 1997 Aug;90(2):240-3.
Treatment for GBS in Urine
Intrapartum Treatment for Penicillin Allergic Patients
Intrapartum group B streptococci prophylaxis in patients reporting a penicillin allergy. (abstract)
Matteson KA, Lievense SP, Catanzaro B, Phipps MG. Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Women and Infants Hospital, the Warren Alpert Medical School at Brown University, Providence, Rhode Island 02905, USA.
1: Obstet Gynecol. 2008 Feb;111(2 Pt 1):356-64.
Antibiotic therapy for reduction of infant morbidity after preterm premature rupture of the membranes. A randomized controlled trial. National Institute of Child Health and Human Development Maternal-Fetal Medicine Units Network. (abstract)
Mercer BM et al. JAMA. 1997 Sep 24;278(12):989-95.
“We recommend that women with expectantly managed PPROM remote from term receive antibiotics to reduce infant morbidity.”
benefits against gbs
Role of human milk in oligosaccharides in Group B Streptococcus colonisation.
Andreas NJ., Al-Khalidi A., Jaiteh M., et al. Clinical and Translational Immunology. 26 Aug, 2016. 5, e99.
A Solution to Antifolate Resistance in Group B Streptococcus : Untargeted Metabolomics Identifies Human Milk Oligosaccharide-Induced Perturbations That Result in Potentiation of Trimethoprim.
Chambers, Schuyler & Moore, Rebecca & Craft, Kelly & Thomas, Harrison & Das, Rishub & Manning, Shannon & Codreanu, Simona & Sherrod, Stacy & Aronoff, David & Mclean, John & Gaddy, Jennifer & Townsend, Steven. (2020). mBio. 11. 10.1128/mBio.00076-20.
Long-term impact of breastmilk on preterm babies.
Orvos JM., Hester M. Contemporary OB/GYN Expert Advice for Today's Ob/Gyn. 29, Jun. 2016.
benefits against specific microorganisms
Other Microorganisms Found in Breastmilk
Flu May Transmit Through Breast Milk, Study Shows.
Nick Staropoli. American Council on Science and Health. 8 Oct. 2015.
Diseases and Conditions.
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.
Maternal colonization with Staphylococcus aureus and Group B streptococcus is associated with colonization in newborns
Roca A, Bojang A, Camara B, Oluwalana C, Lette K, West P, D'Alessandro U, Bottomley C. Clin Microbiol Infect. 2017 Dec;23(12):974-979. doi: 10.1016/j.cmi.2017.04.020. Epub 2017 May 3.
before and after implementation of protocols
Ten-year study on the effect of intrapartum antibiotic prophylaxis on early onset group B streptococcal and Escherichia coli neonatal sepsis in Australasia. (abstract)
Daley AJ, Isaacs D; Australasian Study Group for Neonatal Infections. Pediatr Infect Dis J. 2004 Jul;23(7):630-4.
Epidemiology of invasive group B streptococcal disease in the United States, 1999-2005.
Phares CR et al. JAMA. 2008 May 7;299(17):2056-65. doi: 10.1001/jama.299.17.2056.
(Maternal Fever) Diagnosis and Management of Clinical Chorioamnionitis
Tita A. T. N, Andrews W. W. Clin Perinatol. 2010 Jun; 37(2): 339-354.
Group B streptococcus amnionitis with intact membranes associated with quintuplet delivery
Neri A., Wielunsky E., Henig E., et al. European Journal of Obstetrics &Gynecology and Reproductive Biology. Volume 17, Issue 1, April 1984, Pages 29-32.
Peripartum infection associated with vaginal group B streptococcal colonization.
Yancey MK, Duff P, Clark P, Kurtzer T, Frentzen BH, Kubilis P. Obstet Gynecol. 1994 Nov;84(5):816-9.
“Intrapartum vaginal colonization with group B streptococci is an important independent risk factor for chorioamnionitis.”
Bacterial Hyaluronidase Promotes Ascending GBS Infection and Preterm Birth
Jay Vornhagen, Phoenicia Quach, Erica Boldenow, Sean Merillat, Christopher Whidbey, Lisa Y. Ngo, K. M. Adams Waldorf, Lakshmi Rajagopal. mBio Jun 2016, 7 (3) e00781-16; DOI: 10.1128/mBio.00781-16
The Contribution of Maternal Stress to Preterm Birth: Issues and Considerations
Wadhwa, P. D., Entringer, S., Buss, C., & Lu, M. C. (2011). The Contribution of Maternal Stress to Preterm Birth: Issues and Considerations. Clinics in Perinatology, 38(3), 351–384. http://doi.org/10.1016/j.clp.2011.06.007
Membrane Vesicles of Group B Streptococcus Disrupt Feto-Maternal Barrier Leading to Preterm Birth
Vishnu Surve M, Anil A, Ganesh Kamath K, et al. PLOS Pathogens. 1, Sep. 2016.
Intra-Uterine Death Due To B-Haemolytic Streptococcus Despite Intact Membranes.
D D'Souza, A Sharma. The Internet Journal of Gynecology and Obstetrics. 2007 Volume 10 Number 1.
A hemolytic pigment of Group B Streptococcus allows bacterial penetration of human placenta. (abstract)
Whidbey C et al. J Exp Med. 2013 Jun 3;210(6):1265-81. doi: 10.1084/jem.20122753. Epub 2013 May 27.
Preterm Birth Associated With Group B Streptococcus Maternal Colonization Worldwide: Systematic Review and Meta-analyses
F. Bianchi-Jassir, A. C Seale, M. Kohli-Lynch, J. E Lawn, C. J Baker, L. Bartlett, et al. Clinical Infectious Diseases, Volume 65, Issue suppl_2, 6 November 2017, Pages S133–S142,
Antibiotic Elimination of Group-B Streptococci in Urine in Prevention of Preterm Labour (abstract)
AC Thomsen, L Morup, KB Hansen. The Lancet, 1(8533):591-593, 1987.
Prevention of Group B Streptococcal Disease in the Newborn
BS Apgar, MD, MS; G Greenberg, MD, MA; and G YEN, MD American Family Physician, March 1 2005
“Compared with infants born to lightly colonized women, those born to heavily colonized women have 2.5 times the risk of infection. Neonates born to mothers who have GBS bacteriuria at any time during pregnancy are known to be more frequently and more heavily colonized with GBS and are more likely to develop sepsis. Infections that occur in the first two days of life usually are caused by exposure to maternal organisms. Risk factors for neonatal transmission and infection are listed in Table 1. Compared with term newborns, preterm and low-birth-weight infants have increased rates of GBS sepsis.”
Premature labor with intact membranes: microbiology of the amniotic fluid and lower genital tract and its relation with maternal and neonatal outcome. (abstract)
Rev Med Chil. 2000 Sep;128(9):985-95. Ovalle A, Martinez MA, Gomez R, Saez J, Menares I, Aspillaga C, Schwarze JE.
“In preterm labor with intact membranes, intraamniotic infection is the most frequent cause of prematurity and is associated with a higher prevalence of maternal and neonatal problems.“
Genetic risk factor for premature birth found.
University of California, San Diego Health Sciences. ScienceDaily. ScienceDaily, 6 May 2014.
“Researchers have discovered a genetic risk factor for premature birth. The risk factor is related to a gene that codes for a protein that the scientists have found helps the body’s immune cells recognize and fight Group B Streptococcus (GBS) bacteria. These bacteria are found in the vagina or lower gastrointestinal tract of approximately 15 to 20 percent of healthy women, but may cause life-threatening infections, such as sepsis or meningitis in newborns, especially those born prematurely.”
Is there a correlation between the vaginal colonization with group B streptococci and premature deliveries? (abstract)
Kovachev E, Markova V, Bozhkova K, Popova A, Tsvetkova S, Cherneva S. Akush Ginekol (Sofiia). 2003;42 Suppl 2:3-5.
Group B streptococcal colonization and preterm labour. (abstract)
McDonald H, Vigneswaran R, O’Loughlin JA. Aust N Z J Obstet Gynaecol. 1989 Aug;29(3 Pt 2):291-3.